Skip to content

Tramadol Vs Oxycodone, Comparison Of Side Effects & Efficacy

Tramadol Vs Oxycodone

What Is Tramadol?

Tramadol is a medication that is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. It belongs to a class of drugs called opioid analgesics and works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain, changing the way your body perceives and responds to pain. In addition to its opioid effects, tramadol also has some properties that affect the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine.

Tramadol is often prescribed for conditions such as postoperative pain, dental pain, and chronic conditions like osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia. It comes in various forms, including immediate-release and extended-release tablets and capsules.

While tramadol is considered an opioid, it is generally considered to have a lower risk of dependence and abuse compared to other opioids. However, misuse or overuse of tramadol can still lead to serious side effects, including addiction and respiratory depression.

What Is Oxycodone?

Oxycodone is a powerful opioid analgesic, meaning it is a medication used for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, altering the way the body perceives and responds to pain. Oxycodone is commonly prescribed for conditions such as postoperative pain, injury-related pain, and chronic pain associated with diseases like cancer.

Oxycodone is available in various formulations, including immediate-release and extended-release tablets and capsules. The immediate-release form is often used for acute pain management. In contrast, the extended-release form is designed to provide a more prolonged effect and is typically used for chronic pain that requires continuous, around-the-clock relief.

Due to its potency and the potential for misuse, oxycodone is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, which means it has a high potential for abuse and may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Which Is Better For Pain?

The choice between tramadol and oxycodone for pain management depends on various factors, including the type and severity of pain, individual patient characteristics, and potential risks and benefits. There is no one-size-fits-all answer, and the decision is typically made by a healthcare professional based on the patient’s specific needs. Here are some considerations:

  1. Severity of Pain:
    • Moderate Pain: Tramadol is often considered for moderate pain.
    • Severe Pain: Oxycodone, being more potent, may be considered for more severe pain.
  2. Individual Response: Individual responses to pain medications can vary. What works well for one person may not be as effective for another.
  3. Risk of Dependence and Abuse: Tramadol is generally considered to have a lower risk of dependence and abuse compared to oxycodone. This may be a consideration, especially for individuals with a history of substance abuse.
  4. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions or contraindications may influence the choice between tramadol and oxycodone. For example, the risk of serotonin syndrome with tramadol may be a concern in individuals taking other medications that affect serotonin levels.
  5. Duration of Pain: The duration of pain may influence the choice of medication. Immediate-release formulations are often used for acute pain, while extended-release formulations may be considered for chronic pain requiring around-the-clock relief.
  6. Prescription Guidelines: Healthcare professionals will follow established guidelines and consider patients’ specific needs when prescribing pain medications.

Individuals must communicate openly with their healthcare providers about their pain, any concerns or side effects they may be experiencing, and any relevant medical history. The goal is to find each individual’s most effective and safe pain management strategy.

Neither tramadol nor oxycodone is inherently “better” than the other; the suitability of each medication depends on the specific circumstances of the patient. It’s essential to use these medications only under the supervision and guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Is Tramadol Stronger Than Oxycodone?

No, tramadol is generally considered to be less potent than oxycodone. Oxycodone is a stronger opioid analgesic compared to tramadol. Potency refers to the amount of medication needed to produce a specific effect, and opioids are often classified based on their strength.

While both medications are opioids and can be effective in managing pain, oxycodone is generally more potent and is often reserved for situations where stronger pain relief is required. The choice between tramadol and oxycodone is made by healthcare professionals based on the specific needs and conditions of the patient.

Can You Take Tramadol With Oxycodone?

The simultaneous use of tramadol and oxycodone is generally not recommended without careful consideration and explicit guidance from a healthcare professional. Both tramadol and oxycodone are opioid analgesics, and combining them can increase the risk of side effects, including respiratory depression, sedation, and the potential for opioid overdose.

Additionally, both medications can have central nervous system depressant effects, and their combined use may amplify these effects. The risk of adverse reactions is particularly significant if there are other medications or substances involved that can interact with opioids.

If you have been prescribed one of these medications and your pain is not well-controlled, communicate with your healthcare provider rather than self-adjusting your medication or combining it with another opioid. Your healthcare provider may adjust the dosage of the current medication, switch to a different opioid, or explore alternative pain management strategies.

Combining opioids without proper medical supervision can be dangerous and may lead to serious health risks. Always follow the guidance of your healthcare provider and inform them about all medications, including over-the-counter drugs and supplements, that you are taking to ensure a comprehensive understanding of your health and to avoid potential drug interactions.

What Are The Main Differences Between Tramadol and Oxycodone?

CharacteristicTramadolOxycodone
Mechanism of ActionOpioid agonist, also inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptakeOpioid agonist
PotencyLower opioid potencyHigher opioid potency
Controlled Substance ClassVaries by country; may be scheduled or non-scheduledSchedule II controlled substance
Risk of Dependence and AbuseGenerally considered lower riskGenerally considered higher risk
Serotonin Syndrome RiskPotential risk due to serotonin reuptake inhibitionLess likely to cause serotonin syndrome
FormulationsImmediate-release and extended-releaseImmediate-release and extended-release
Prescription GuidelinesOften prescribed for moderate to moderately severe painOften prescribed for more severe pain, including postoperative and cancer-related pain
Comparison Between Tramadol And Oxycodone
Ryan Zofay forming a circle and hugging friends.

Get Your Life Back

Find Hope & Recovery. Get Safe Comfortable Detox, Addiction Rehab & Dual Diagnosis High-Quality Care.

Hotline (855) 695-1160

Tramadol Uses

Tramadol is a medication primarily used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. It is classified as an opioid analgesic, and its pain-relieving effects are achieved by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Tramadol also affects the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine.

Here are some common uses of tramadol:

  1. Pain Management: Tramadol is prescribed for various types of pain, including acute and chronic pain. It may be used to manage pain associated with conditions such as:
    • Postoperative pain.
    • Dental pain.
    • Osteoarthritis.
    • Fibromyalgia.
    • Lower back pain.
    • Neuropathic pain.
  2. Cancer Pain: Tramadol may be used in some cases for the management of cancer-related pain.
  3. Other Conditions: In certain situations, healthcare providers may prescribe tramadol for conditions beyond pain management. However, its primary indication remains pain relief.

While tramadol is an opioid, it is often considered to have a lower risk of abuse and dependence compared to some other opioids. Nevertheless, it should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Always take tramadol as your healthcare provider prescribes, and do not exceed the recommended dosage. Inform your healthcare provider about any other medications or health conditions you have to avoid potential interactions or complications. Consult your healthcare provider for personalized advice if you have questions or concerns about tramadol use.

Oxycodone Uses

Oxycodone is a potent opioid analgesic primarily used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, altering pain perception. Oxycodone is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance due to its high potential for abuse and dependence. Here are some common uses of oxycodone:

  1. Pain Management: Oxycodone is prescribed for various pain types, including acute and chronic pain conditions. Some examples include:
    • Postoperative pain.
    • Cancer-related pain.
    • Severe injuries.
    • Pain associated with medical procedures.
  2. Chronic Pain Conditions: Oxycodone may be used in the management of chronic pain conditions, such as:
    • Chronic back pain.
    • Osteoarthritis.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Neuropathic pain syndromes.
  3. Terminal Illness: Oxycodone is sometimes used in end-of-life care to manage severe pain in individuals with terminal illnesses, such as cancer.

Oxycodone use comes with potential risks, including the risk of dependence, addiction, and respiratory depression. It should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, and the prescribed dosage should be followed carefully.

If you have been prescribed oxycodone, communicate openly with your healthcare provider about your pain levels, any side effects you may be experiencing, and any concerns you have about the medication. Additionally, inform your healthcare provider about all other medicines you are taking to avoid potential drug interactions.

When To Use Oxycodone Vs Tramadol

The choice between oxycodone and tramadol depends on several factors, including the type and severity of pain, the individual patient’s medical history, and the risk-benefit profile of each medication. Here are some general considerations for when to use oxycodone versus tramadol:

The choice between oxycodone and tramadol depends on several factors, including the type and severity of pain, the individual patient's medical history, and the risk-benefit profile of each medication.
The choice between oxycodone and tramadol depends on several factors, including the type and severity of pain, the individual patient’s medical history, and the risk-benefit profile of each medication.

Oxycodone

  1. Severe Pain: Oxycodone is generally considered more potent and is often reserved for situations where stronger pain relief is necessary, such as after major surgery, severe injuries, or cancer-related pain.
  2. Chronic Pain: It may be prescribed for chronic pain conditions that are not well-managed with less potent analgesics.
  3. End-of-Life Care: Oxycodone is sometimes used in palliative care for individuals with terminal illnesses to manage severe pain.
  4. Higher Tolerance: In cases where a patient has developed a tolerance to less potent opioids or has not responded well to other pain management strategies.
  5. Careful Monitoring: Due to its higher potential for abuse and dependence, oxycodone use requires careful monitoring by healthcare professionals.

Tramadol

  1. Moderate Pain: Tramadol is often prescribed for moderate pain, such as postoperative pain, dental procedures, or mild to moderate chronic pain conditions like osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia.
  2. Lower Risk of Dependence: Tramadol is generally considered to have a lower risk of abuse and dependence compared to stronger opioids, making it a potential choice for individuals at lower risk for opioid-related complications.
  3. Neuropathic Pain: Tramadol’s dual mechanism of action, including inhibiting serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, may make it suitable for certain neuropathic pain conditions.
  4. Initial Pain Management: Tramadol might be considered initially before escalating to stronger opioids, especially if the pain is expected to be of shorter duration.
  5. Combination Therapy: Tramadol may be considered in combination with other non-opioid analgesics for multimodal pain management.

The decision to use oxycodone or tramadol should always be made by a healthcare professional based on a thorough assessment of the patient’s condition, medical history, and individual needs. The risks and benefits of each medication should be carefully considered, and the patient should be closely monitored for any adverse effects. Always follow the prescribed dosage and instructions provided by the healthcare provider.

Get Help. Get Better. Get Your Life Back.

Searching for an Accredited Drug and Alcohol Rehab Centers in Near You?

Even if you have failed previously and relapsed, or are in the middle of a difficult crisis, we stand ready to support you. Our trusted behavioral health specialists will not give up on you. When you feel ready or just want someone to speak to about therapy alternatives to change your life call us. Even if we cannot assist you, we will lead you to wherever you can get support. There is no obligation. Call our hotline today.

FREE Addiction Hotline – Call 24/7

Tramadol Side Effects

Tramadol, like any medication, can cause side effects. Not everyone will experience these side effects, and some individuals may experience effects that are not listed. Common side effects of tramadol include:

  1. Nausea and Vomiting: Gastrointestinal upset, including nausea and vomiting, is a common side effect. Taking tramadol with food or as directed by your healthcare provider may help mitigate this.
  2. Dizziness or Lightheadedness: Tramadol can cause dizziness or lightheadedness, especially when standing up from a sitting or lying position. To minimize this effect, it’s essential to rise slowly from a seated or lying position.
  3. Constipation: Opioids, including tramadol, can slow down bowel movements and lead to constipation. Maintaining adequate hydration and dietary fiber intake can help alleviate this side effect.
  4. Headache: Some individuals may experience headaches as a side effect of tramadol.
  5. Drowsiness or Fatigue: Tramadol can cause drowsiness or fatigue, affecting a person’s ability to concentrate or operate machinery. It’s important to avoid activities that require mental alertness until you know how tramadol affects you.
  6. Sweating: Excessive sweating, also known as diaphoresis, can occur in some individuals taking tramadol.
  7. Dry Mouth: Tramadol may cause a dry mouth sensation in some people.
  8. Serotonin Syndrome: In rare cases, tramadol can lead to serotonin syndrome, especially when taken at higher doses or in combination with other medications that increase serotonin levels. Symptoms of serotonin syndrome include agitation, hallucinations, rapid heartbeat, fever, muscle stiffness, and loss of coordination. Seek immediate medical attention if you experience these symptoms.
  9. Seizures: Tramadol may lower the seizure threshold, and there is an increased risk of seizures, particularly at higher doses.
  10. Respiratory Depression: In some cases, tramadol can cause respiratory depression, especially when taken in excess or in combination with other respiratory depressants.

Report any unusual or severe side effects to your healthcare provider. Additionally, seek immediate medical attention if you experience signs of an allergic reaction, such as difficulty breathing, rash, or swelling.

This is not an exhaustive list of tramadol side effects, and individual responses may vary. Always take tramadol as prescribed by your healthcare provider, and consult them if you have any concerns about side effects or the medication’s overall safety for you.

Oxycodone Side Effects

Common side effects of oxycodone include:

  1. Respiratory Depression: Opioids, including oxycodone, can suppress respiratory function, especially at higher doses. This is a severe side effect that requires immediate medical attention.
  2. Constipation: Opioids often cause constipation, and individuals taking oxycodone may need to use stool softeners or laxatives under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
  3. Nausea and Vomiting: Some people may experience nausea or vomiting, particularly when first starting the medication.
  4. Dizziness or Lightheadedness: Oxycodone can cause dizziness or lightheadedness, especially when standing up quickly. Patients should be cautious when changing positions.
  5. Sedation: Oxycodone can cause drowsiness or sedation, and individuals should avoid activities that require alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until they know how the medication affects them.
  6. Itching or Rash: Some individuals may experience itching or develop a rash.
  7. Headache: Headache is a common side effect of oxycodone.
  8. Sweating: Excessive sweating can occur as a side effect.
  9. Dry Mouth: Opioids can cause dry mouth.
  10. Urinary Retention: Difficulty urinating or a decrease in the frequency of urination can occur.

Tramadol and Oxycodone Warnings

Both tramadol and oxycodone are potent opioid medications, and their use comes with important warnings and considerations. It’s crucial to use these medications only under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Below are some general warnings associated with tramadol and oxycodone:

General Considerations for Both Medications:

  1. Use in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Both tramadol and oxycodone should be used with caution during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and the potential risks and benefits should be carefully evaluated.
  2. Driving and Operating Machinery: Both medications can cause drowsiness and impaired alertness. Individuals taking these medications should avoid driving or operating machinery until they know how the medication affects them.
  3. Individualized Treatment: The choice between tramadol and oxycodone, as well as the dosage and duration of use, should be individualized based on the patient’s specific medical condition, pain level, and medical history.
Tramadol and Oxycodone come with their warnings. Generally, be cautious of using tramadol and oxycodone when pregnant or when driving and operating machinery.
Tramadol and Oxycodone come with their warnings. Generally, be cautious of using tramadol and oxycodone when pregnant or when driving and operating machinery.

Tramadol Warnings

  1. Seizure Risk: Tramadol may lower the seizure threshold, increasing the risk of seizures. This risk is higher at higher doses or in individuals with a history of seizures.
  2. Serotonin Syndrome: Tramadol’s dual mechanism of action involving opioid receptors and the inhibition of serotonin reuptake may lead to serotonin syndrome, mainly when used in combination with other medications that affect serotonin levels.
  3. Respiratory Depression: Like other opioids, tramadol can cause respiratory depression, especially at higher doses or when misused.
  4. Dependency and Withdrawal: Prolonged use of tramadol can lead to physical dependence, and abrupt discontinuation may result in withdrawal symptoms.
  5. Interaction with Other Medications: Tramadol can interact with other medications, including antidepressants, certain antibiotics, and other opioids, potentially leading to adverse effects.

Oxycodone Warnings:

  1. Respiratory Depression: Oxycodone, being a potent opioid, can cause respiratory depression, which is a potentially severe side effect that can be life-threatening.
  2. Dependency and Addiction: Oxycodone has a high potential for abuse, dependence, and addiction. It should be used with caution, especially in individuals with a history of substance abuse.
  3. Accidental Exposure: Accidental exposure to oxycodone, especially in children, can result in respiratory depression and death. Keep the medication out of reach of children.
  4. Interaction with Other Substances: Oxycodone can interact with other medications, alcohol, and substances that depress the central nervous system, increasing the risk of respiratory depression.
  5. Risk of Overdose: The risk of overdose increases with higher doses or when combined with other respiratory depressants.

Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions precisely, report any side effects promptly, and communicate openly about your medical history, including any other medications you take. Never self-adjust the dosage or abruptly stop taking these medications without consulting a healthcare professional. If you have concerns or questions about tramadol, oxycodone, or their use, consult your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

First-class Facilities & Amenities

World-class High-Quality Addiction & Mental Health Rehabilitation Treatment

Rehab Centers Tour

Renowned California Addiction Center. Serene Private Facilities. Inpatient rehab programs vary.

Addiction Helpline (855) 695-1160

Proven recovery success experience, backed by a Team w/ History of:

  • 15+ Years Experience
  • 100s of 5-Star Reviews
  • 10K+ Recovery Successes
  • Low Patient to Therapist Ratio
  • Onsite Medical Detox Center
  • Comprehensive Dual-Diagnosis Treatment
  • Complimentary Family & Alumni Programs
  • Coaching, Recovery & Personal Development Events
Both tramadol and oxycodone can interact with other medications, potentially leading to adverse effects or changes in the effectiveness of the drugs involved. Do not combine Tramadol and Oxycodone without consulting a medical professional.
Both tramadol and oxycodone can interact with other medications, potentially leading to adverse effects or changes in the effectiveness of the drugs involved. Do not combine Tramadol and Oxycodone without consulting a medical professional.

Tramadol And Oxycodone Drug Interactions

Both tramadol and oxycodone can interact with other medications, potentially leading to adverse effects or changes in the effectiveness of the drugs involved. Inform your healthcare provider about all medicines, supplements, and over-the-counter medicines you are taking to minimize the risk of drug interactions. Here are some common drug interactions associated with tramadol and oxycodone:

General Considerations

  1. Alcohol: Both tramadol and oxycodone can cause central nervous system depression. Combining them with alcohol can increase the risk of respiratory depression and sedation.
  2. Herbal Supplements: Some herbal supplements and alternative medicines can interact with tramadol and oxycodone. St. John’s Wort, for example, may decrease the effectiveness of both medications.
  3. Anticoagulants: Both tramadol and oxycodone can potentially interact with anticoagulant medications, increasing the risk of bleeding.

Tramadol Drug Interactions

  1. Serotonergic Medications: Tramadol has serotonergic properties, and combining it with other medications that increase serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or certain antidepressants, can increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
  2. Benzodiazepines and Sedatives: Concurrent use of tramadol with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system depressants can enhance the sedative effects of these medications, increasing the risk of drowsiness, respiratory depression, and other adverse effects.
  3. Carbamazepine: Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant, may reduce the analgesic efficacy of tramadol.
  4. MAO Inhibitors: Concurrent use of tramadol with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.

Oxycodone Drug Interactions

  1. Other Opioids: Combining oxycodone with other opioids, including tramadol, can increase the risk of respiratory depression, sedation, and overdose.
  2. Benzodiazepines and Sedatives: Similar to tramadol, combining oxycodone with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system depressants can enhance the sedative effects and increase the risk of respiratory depression.
  3. CYP3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers: Oxycodone is metabolized by the CYP3A4 enzyme. Drugs that inhibit or induce this enzyme can affect the metabolism of oxycodone, potentially altering its efficacy or increasing the risk of side effects.
  4. Anticholinergic Medications: Combining oxycodone with medications that have anticholinergic effects can increase the risk of constipation, urinary retention, and other side effects.
  5. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs): Concurrent use of oxycodone with MAOIs can lead to increased opioid effects and potentially severe side effects.

Always inform your healthcare provider about all your medications, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, herbal supplements, and vitamins. They can assess potential interactions and adjust your treatment plan accordingly. Never self-adjust your medication without consulting your healthcare provider. If you experience any unexpected side effects or changes in your health while taking tramadol or oxycodone, seek medical attention promptly.

World-class, Accredited, 5-Star Reviewed, Effective Addiction & Mental Health Programs. Complete Behavioral Health Inpatient Rehab, Detox plus Co-occuring Disorders Therapy.

CALL (855) 695-1160

End the Addiction Pain. End the Emotional Rollercoaster. Get Your Life Back. Start Drug, Alcohol & Dual Diagnosis Mental Health Treatment Now. Get Free No-obligation Guidance by Substance Abuse Specialists Who Understand Addiction & Mental Health Recovery & Know How to Help.

Opioid Addiction

Opioid addiction, also known as opioid use disorder (OUD), is a chronic medical condition characterized by the compulsive use of opioids despite harmful consequences. Opioids are a class of drugs that include both prescription medications, such as oxycodone, morphine, and fentanyl, as well as illicit substances like heroin.

Key features of opioid addiction include:

  1. Loss of Control: Individuals with opioid addiction often find it challenging to control their use of opioids. They may take larger amounts or use the substance for a more extended period than intended.
  2. Craving: There is an intense desire or craving for opioids. As a result, much of a person’s time and energy may be spent trying to obtain and use the drug.
  3. Continued Use Despite Harm: Despite negative consequences on physical health, mental well-being, relationships, and overall functioning, individuals with opioid addiction continue to use opioids.
  4. Tolerance: Over time, tolerance can develop, meaning that higher doses of opioids are needed to achieve the same effects. This can increase the risk of overdose.
  5. Withdrawal Symptoms: When not using opioids, individuals with opioid addiction may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, and intense cravings, which can drive continued drug use.

Opioid addiction is a complex and multifaceted condition with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role in its development. Some of the risk factors include a personal or family history of substance use disorders, a history of trauma or stress, and certain genetic factors.

Treatment for opioid addiction typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, counseling, and, in some cases, medication-assisted treatment (MAT). MAT may include the use of medications such as methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone to help manage cravings and withdrawal symptoms.

Individuals with opioid addiction need to seek help from healthcare professionals, addiction specialists, or addiction treatment programs. Opioid addiction is a treatable condition, and recovery is possible with appropriate intervention and ongoing support. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid addiction, consider reaching out to a healthcare provider or addiction treatment center for guidance and support.

Experience Transformative Recovery at the We Level Up California Treatment Center.

See our authentic success stories. Get inspired. Get the help you deserve.

We Level Up Treatment Centers for Drug Alcohol Rehab Detox Behavioral Mental Health Dual Diagnosis Therapy We Level Up Treatment Centers for Drug Alcohol Rehab Detox Behavioral Mental Health Dual Diagnosis Therapy We Level Up Treatment Centers for Drug Alcohol Rehab Detox Behavioral Mental Health Dual Diagnosis Therapy
Hotline (855) 695-1160
Voluntarily testimonials from the We Level Up Treatment Center network vary. Not intended as a guaranteed treatment or outcome as each person's journey is unique.

Start a New Life

Begin with a free call to an addiction & behavioral health treatment advisor. Learn more about our dual-diagnosis programs. The We Level Up treatment center network delivers recovery programs that vary by each treatment facility. Call to learn more.

  • Personalized Care
  • Caring Accountable Staff
  • World-class Amenities
  • Licensed & Accredited
  • Renowned w/ 100s 5-Star Reviews

We’ll Call You


“Horrific Opiates Heroin Addiction Led to Prison. My Life was a Wreck” to a Beautiful Sober Life…

YouTube video

Search We Level Up CA Tramadol Vs Oxycodone Drug & Alcohol Rehab / Detox & Mental Health Topics & Resources

Sources
  1. Silvasti M, Tarkkila P, Tuominen M, Svartling N, Rosenberg PH. Efficacy and side effects of tramadol versus oxycodone for patient-controlled analgesia after maxillofacial surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1999 Dec;16(12):834-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2346.1999.00597.x. PMID: 10747212. Read More: Tramadol Vs Oxycodone, Oxycodone Vs Tramadol, Tramadol And Oxycodone, Is Tramadol Stronger Than Oxycodone, Can You Take Tramadol With Oxycodone, Oxycodone And Tramadol,
  2. Hazzard S, McLaughlin A, Cacace H, Nukala V, Asnis P. Tramadol Provides Similar Pain Relief and a Better Side Effect Profile than Oxycodone (or Hydrocodone) Alone or in Combination With Tramadol After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction or Arthroscopic Knee Debridement. Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil. 2023 May 17;5(3):e765-e771. doi: 10.1016/j.asmr.2023.04.003. PMID: 37388889; PMCID: PMC10300592. Read More: Tramadol Vs Oxycodone, Oxycodone Vs Tramadol, Tramadol And Oxycodone, Is Tramadol Stronger Than Oxycodone, Can You Take Tramadol With Oxycodone, Oxycodone And Tramadol,
  3. WHO Guidelines for the Pharmacological and Radiotherapeutic Management of Cancer Pain in Adults and Adolescents. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. ANNEX 6, Pharmacological Profiles and Opioid Conversion Tables. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537482/
  4. Bhatnagar M, Pruskowski J. Opioid Equivalency. [Updated 2022 Sep 12]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535402/
  5. US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) – Use of Codeine, Oxycodone, and Other Opioids: Information for Employees – https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/guidance/use-codeine-oxycodone-and-other-opioids-information-employees
  6. DEA – Oxycodone – https://www.dea.gov/factsheets/oxycodone
  7. MedLine Plus – Oxycodone – https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682132.html
  8. FDA – Oxycontin Label – https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/020553s059lbl.pdf
  9. Sadiq NM, Dice TJ, Mead T. Oxycodone. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482226/
  10. Dhesi M, Maldonado KA, Maani CV. Tramadol. [Updated 2023 Apr 16]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537060/
  11. Medline Plus – Tramadol – https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a695011.html
  12. Cohen B, Ruth LJ, Preuss CV. Opioid Analgesics. [Updated 2023 Apr 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459161/ Read More: Dilaudid Vs Oxycodone, Oxycodone To Dilaudid, Is Oxycodone Stronger Than Dilaudid,
  13. Chou R, Hartung D, Turner J, et al. Opioid Treatments for Chronic Pain [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2020 Apr. (Comparative Effectiveness Review, No. 229.) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556253/ Read More: Dilaudid Vs Oxycodone, Oxycodone To Dilaudid, Is Oxycodone Stronger Than Dilaudid,
  14. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Committee on Pain Management and Regulatory Strategies to Address Prescription Opioid Abuse; Phillips JK, Ford MA, Bonnie RJ, editors. Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Jul 13. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK458660/ doi: 10.17226/24781
  15. Zullo AR, Danko KJ, Moyo P, et al. Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Opioids, Opioid Misuse, and Opioid Use Disorder in Older Adults [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2020 Nov. (Technical Brief, No. 37.) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564144/