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Cocaine Side Effects, Psychological, Physical Short and Long-Term Side Effects of Cocaine

Cocaine Side Effects: What is Cocaine?

Normally when we think of drug abuse, the immediate thing that comes to mind is when someone takes drugs every day, several times. But with cocaine addiction, signs can be ambiguous. You do not have to be taking cocaine, or crack cocaine, every day to be addicted to it. A sign of addiction is that you’ve tried to cut down or stop but are unable to. Any use of cocaine is considered abuse because it is an illegal substance.

Even when cocaine is a highly addictive drug, one of its main issues is that it may be hard to recognize an addiction to it. For example, craving cocaine, even if the use or need appears every few days, and ignoring the consequences that come with it are signs of an addiction. 

The psychological addiction is often the hardest part to overcome, although there are undeniable physical symptoms of addiction as well. Someone who uses cocaine frequently will develop a dependence on it, meaning they need to have it to feel normal.

Cocaine Side Effects
Cocaine Side Effects: Psychological addiction is often the hardest part to overcome, although there are undeniable physical symptoms of addiction as well.

Once dependence has developed, a tolerance will develop and withdrawal symptoms will occur when stopping use. Once someone becomes addicted to cocaine, it can be very hard to stop. This is because cocaine abnormally increases the level of dopamine in the brain, eventually reprogramming the brain reward system.

Cocaine is a stimulant, meaning it increases alertness and energy. It affects the neural pathways in your brain, leading you to feel talkative, energetic, and euphoric. Cocaine addiction can develop quickly, even after trying it only a few times. An addiction can be physical, meaning your body craves the drug. It can also be mental, meaning you strongly desire the drug’s effects. Moreover, Cocaine can be consumed in a variety of ways.

Cocaine Side Effects

For a short time, cocaine has stimulating effects on the body. It causes a naturally occurring neurotransmitter called dopamine to increase its concentration in the brain. This causes feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Cocaine causes your dopamine levels to rise to cause the user to feel euphoric. 

Cocaine prevents dopamine, and other neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, from being taken up into the nerve cells. This allows large amounts of neurotransmitters to accumulate and stimulate the surrounding nerve cells. This heightens the pleasurable sense of euphoria. Cocaine side effects can also minimize your desire for sleep and food. Some people report that cocaine helps them think and perform tasks more quickly. Many users begin to crave the feelings that cocaine creates.

Cocaine Side Effects
Some of the most severe cocaine side effects are paranoia, panic, and hallucinations.

Frequent use of cocaine can cause you to develop a higher tolerance to the drug. A high tolerance means it takes more of the drug for you to feel its effects. This may lead to using greater amounts of it, which can impact your mental and physical health.

Psychological cocaine side Effects include:

  • Paranoia
  • Panic
  • Hallucinations
  • Aggression
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Impaired judgment
  • Repetitive or abnormal behaviors

Physical cocaine side Effects include:

  • Unhealthy weight loss
  • Increased heart rate
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Headaches
  • Chest pain
  • Heart arrhythmia
  • Heart attack
  • Seizure
  • Stroke

Cocaine side effects are also associated with medical conditions that include:

  • Respiratory diseases
  • Weakened immune system
  • Hepatitis
  • Gangrene of the bowels

Cocaine Side Effects: Causes Cocaine Addiction

Cocaine affects neurological systems in your brain. Cocaine use, especially repetitive use, can alter systems associated with pleasure, memory, and decision making. When someone is addicted, their ability to resist urges becomes impaired, making it harder to quit. All stimulants act to enhance the extracellular concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Stimulant drugs can block the transport of these neurotransmitters.

Repeated exposure to cocaine results in neuroadaptation. This includes sensitization (increased drug response) and tolerance (decreased drug response). Physical tolerance to the effects of cocaine can occur after just a few uses. This results in needing more and more of the drug to get the same effect.

Short-Term Cocaine Side Effects

Addicted users who stop using cocaine will undergo an initial crash, known as withdrawal. Withdrawal can be intense and difficult due to cravings and uncomfortable side effects. Effects of cocaine withdrawal include:

  • Fatigue
  • Hostility
  • Paranoia
  • Anxiety
  • Agitation
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Depression

Withdrawal from cocaine can cause intense discomfort. And this can cause a strong desire to use the drug again. Even when withdrawal symptoms have subsided, sudden cravings are common. Support systems such as friends, family, treatment facilities, and other people recovering from addiction, can help you push through this phase. 

Other common, short-term cocaine side effects include:

  • Decreased appetite
  • A temporary feeling of intense happiness or pleasure
  • A feeling of “jitters” or restlessness
  • Irritability

Long-Term cocaine side Effects 

Cocaine can have long-term side effects, too, especially after prolonged, habitual use. Long-term ways cocaine can affect the brain include:

  • Headaches
  • Extreme weight loss
  • Loss of smell/olfactory function
  • Mood swings
  • Movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease
  • Severe paranoia
  • Auditory hallucinations
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Death by overdose
  • Seizures

Most short-term cocaine side effects wear off within a day or two. But long-term side-effects can be permanent. Sometimes, the long-term side effects of cocaine use are a sign of brain damage.

Physicians can diagnose cocaine addiction. If you reach out to your doctor about your cocaine use, they will start by asking you questions about your lifestyle, habits, usage, and dosage. It’s important to be straightforward and honest so you can get the right treatment. 

Sometimes a health event, such as a seizure or stroke, will prompt a doctor to bring up the possibility of cocaine addiction to you if you also have other symptoms. Your doctor may use a drug test to confirm cocaine use. A urine drug test may only test positive for cocaine for about 4 days after last use. But the longer you’ve been using cocaine, the more it can accumulate in your body, and the longer it takes to metabolize.

Cocaine Side Effects Treatments

Unlike some drugs, such as opioids, there are no FDA-approved medications that specifically treat cocaine withdrawal. However, some promising medications may help individuals overcome cocaine addiction and work through withdrawal symptoms.

A study suggested that propranolol might have a beneficial, stabilizing effect for those suffering from cocaine withdrawal. This beta-blocker has been approved to treat hypertension and angina, and it is often prescribed to treat anxiety and related psychological problems. One of the major concerns with cocaine withdrawal is the risk of a person developing serious anxiety, depression, or suicidal thoughts. If anxiety and restlessness are reduced, other symptoms of withdrawal may be easier to manage and the entire withdrawal experience will be less unpleasant.

Cocaine Side Effects
Cocaine Side Effects Treatment: individual and group psychotherapy enables compulsive freebase cocaine addicts to articulate explanations for their drug dependence.

Other medications to treat depression and anxiety could be useful for people undergoing cocaine withdrawal, as they could stabilize their moods and reduce depression. They could be particularly helpful for people whose withdrawal symptoms last longer than 7-10 days. However, medical professionals should consider these cases individually and carefully monitor patients for side effects, further addictive behaviors, and psychological changes that are detrimental to the overall goal of managing the addiction.

Psychoanalytic-developmental treatment model

According to the scientific piece ‘Cocaine dependence treatment on an inpatient detoxification unit’, published by the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, a psychoanalytic-developmental treatment model includes individual and group psychotherapy which enables compulsive freebase cocaine addicts to articulate explanations for their drug dependence. Relapse prevention education includes recommendations for aftercare treatment. 

Psychosocial history and DSM-III diagnostic data reveal histories of dysfunctional family dynamics, high rates of depressive disorders, and personality disorders. Residential therapeutic communities (TCs) need to offer variable program lengths and specialized crack residences in therapeutic milieus with trained clinical staff. TC programs should offer inpatient psychotherapy, family therapy, and provide direct entrance into program-affiliated outpatient services. Recommendations for outpatient services include adjuncts to established anonymous self-help group networks to reduce chances of relapse.

Reclaim your life from Cocaine Addiction 

Cocaine addiction is a serious disease that should not be taken lightly.  We Level Up Treatment Center can provide you, or someone you love, the tools to recover from addiction and manage cocaine side effects with professional and safe treatment.  Feel free to call us to speak with one of our counselors. We can inform you about this condition by giving you relevant information. Our specialists know what you are going through.  Please know that each call is private and confidential.


[1] We Level Up Treatment Center – Cocaine Addiction (

[2] National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)  (

[3] Barbara C. Wallace, Cocaine dependence treatment on an inpatient detoxification unit, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Volume 4, Issue 2. (

[4] We Level Up Treatment Center New Jersey – Cocaine Addiction Treatment (